The ASAB’s Storage Service supports data storage in-memory or in dedicated document databases, including MongoDB and ElasticSearch.


First, specify the storage type in the configuration. The options for the storage type are:

  • inmemory: Collects data directly in memory
  • mongodb: Collects data using MongoDB database. Depends on pymongo and motor libraries.
  • elasticsearch: Collects data using ElasticSearch database. Depends on aiohttp library.

Storage Service provides a unified interface for accessing and manipulating collections across multiple database technologies.


For accessing the storage, simply add` when initializing and register the service.

class MyApplication(asab.Application):

    async def initialize(self):


    async def main(self):
        storage = self.get_service("asab.StorageService")

Manipulation with databases


Upsertor is an object that works like a pointer to the specified database and optionally to object id. It is used for inserting new objects, updating existing objects and deleting them.

u = storage.upsertor("test-collection")

The StorageService.upsertor() method creates an upsertor object associated with the specified collection. It takes collection as an argument and can have two parameters obj_id and version, which are used for getting an existing object by its ID and version.

Inserting an object

For inserting an object to the collection, use the Upsertor.set() method.

u.set("key", "value")

To execute these procedures, simply run the Upsertor.execute() coroutine method, which commits the upsertor data to the storage and returns the ID of the object. Since it is a coroutine, it must be awaited.

object_id = await u.execute()

The Upsertor.execute() method has optional parameters custom_data and event_type, which are used for webhook requests.

object_id = await u.execute(
    custom_data= {"foo": "bar"},

Getting a single object

For getting a single object, use StorageService.get() coroutine method that takes two arguments collection and obj_id and finds an object by its ID in collection.

obj = await storage.get(collection="test-collection", obj_id=object_id)

When the requested object is not found in the collection, the method raises KeyError. Remember to handle this exception properly when using databases in your services and prevent them from crashing!


MongoDB storage service in addition provides a coroutine method get_by() which is used for accessing an object by finding its key-value pair.

Updating an object

For updating an object, first obtain the upsertor specifying its obj_id and version.

u = storage.upsertor(

We strongly recommend to read the version from the object such as above. That creates a soft lock on the record. It means that if the object is updated by other component in meanwhile, your upsertor will fail and you should retry the whole operation. The new objects should have a version set to 0, which is done by default.

After obtaining an upsertor, you can update the object via the Upsertor.set() coroutine.

Deleting an object

For deleting an object from database, use the StorageService.delete() coroutine method which takes arguments collection and obj_id, deletes the object and returns its ID.

deleted_id = await u.delete("test-collection", object_id)

Storing data in memory

If the option inmemory is set, ASAB will store data in its own memory. In particular, asab.StorageService is initialized with an attribute InMemoryCollections which is a dictionary where all the collections are stored in.


You can go through all the databases directly by accessing InMemoryCollections attribute, although we do not recommend that.

import pprint

storage = self.get_service("asab.StorageService")
pprint.pprint(storage.InMemoryCollections, indent=2)

Storing data in MongoDB

If the option mongodb is set, ASAB will store data in MongoDB database.

ASAB uses motor library which provides non-blocking MongoDB driver for asyncio.

You can specify the database name and URL for MongoDB in config file (the following example is the default configuration):


You can use all the methods from the abstract class. MongoDB Storage class provides in addition two methods, StorageService.get_by() and StorageService.collection().

The method StorageService.get_by() is used in the same way as StorageService.get() except that it takes the arguments key and value instead of obj_id.

obj = await storage.get_by(database="test-collection", key="key", value="value")

The method collection() is used for accessing the database directly. It takes collection as the argument and returns motor.motor_asyncio.AsyncIOMotorCollection object, which can be used for calling MongoDB directives.

collection = await storage.collection("test-collection")
cursor = collection.find({})
while await cursor.fetch_next:
    data = cursor.next_object()

The full list of methods suitable for this object is described in the official documentation.

Storing data in ElasticSearch

When using ElasticSearch, add configurations for URL, username and password.


You can also specify the refreshing parameter and scroll timeout for ElasticSearch Scroll API.


ElasticSearch Storage provides in addition other methods for creating index templates, mappings etc (see the Reference section).

Encryption and decryption

Data stored in the database can be encrypted using an algorithm that adheres to the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES).

AES Key settings

In order to use encryption, first make sure you have the cryptography package installed. Then specify the AES Key in the config file.



The AES Key is used as both an encryption and decryption key. It is recommended to keep it in a separate configuration file that is not exposed anywhere publicly.

The actual binary AES Key is obtained from the aes_key specified in the config file by encoding and hashing it using the standard hashlib algorithms, so do not worry about the length and type of the key.

Encrypting data

The Upsertor.set() method has an optional boolean parameter encrypt for encrypting the data before they are stored. Only values of the type bytes can be encrypted. If you want to encrypt other values, encode them first.

message = "This is a super secret message!"
number = 2023
message_binary = message.encode("ascii")
number_binary = number.encode("ascii")

u.set("message", message_binary, encrypt=True)
u.set("number", number_binary, encrypt=True)
object_id = await u.execute()

Decrypting data

The StorageService.get() coroutine method has an optional parameter decrypt which takes an iterable object (i.e. a list, tuple, set, …) with the names of keys whose values are to be decrypted.

data = await storage.get(
    decrypt=["message", "number"]

If some of the keys to be decrypted are missing in the required document, the method will ignore them and continue.


Data that has been encrypted can be identified by the prefix “$aes-cbc$” and are stored in a binary format.

Under the hood

For encrypting data, we use the certified symmetric AES-CBC algorithm. In fact, the abstract base class StorageServiceABC provides two methods aes_encrypt() and aes_decrypt() that are called automatically in Upsertor.set() and StorageService.get() methods when the parameter encrypt or decrypt is specified.

AES-CBC is a mode of operation for the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm that provides confidentiality and integrity for data. In AES-CBC, the plaintext is divided into blocks of fixed size (usually 128 bits), and each block is encrypted using the AES algorithm with a secret key.

CBC stands for “Cipher Block Chaining” and it is a technique that adds an extra step to the encryption process to ensure that each ciphertext block depends on the previous one. This means that any modification to the ciphertext will produce a completely different plaintext after decryption.

The algorithm is a symmetric cipher, which is suitable for encrypting large amounts of data. It requires much less computation power than asymmetric ciphers and is much more useful for bulk encrypting large amounts of data.



Here is a list of methods of the abstract StorageService class which can be used for all types of storages.

class, service_name)[source]
upsertor(collection: str, obj_id=None, version: int = 0)[source]

Create an upsertor object for the specified collection.

If updating an existing object, please specify its obj_id and also version that you need to read from a storage upfront. If obj_id is None, we assume that you want to insert a new object and generate its new obj_id, version should be set to 0 (default) in that case. If you want to insert a new object with a specific obj_id, specify obj_id and set a version to 0.

  • If there will be a colliding object already stored in a storage, execute() method will fail on DuplicateError.
  • collection – Name of collection to work with
  • obj_id – Primary identification of an object in the storage (e.g. primary key)
  • version – Specify a current version of the object and hence prevent byzantine faults. You should always read the version from the storage upfront, prior using an upsertor. That creates a soft lock on the record. It means that if the object is updated by other component in meanwhile, your upsertor will fail and you should retry the whole operation. The new objects should have a version set to 0.
get(collection: str, obj_id, decrypt=None) → dict[source]

Get object from collection by its ID.

  • collection (str) – Collection to get from.
  • obj_id – Object identification.
  • decrypt – Set of fields to decrypt.

The object retrieved from a storage.


KeyError – Raised if obj_id is not found in collection.

delete(collection: str, obj_id)[source]

Delete object from collection.

  • collection (str) – Collection to get from
  • obj_id – Object identification

ID of the deleted object.


KeyError – Raised when obj_id cannot be found in collection.

aes_encrypt(raw: bytes, iv: bytes = None) → bytes[source]

Take an array of bytes and encrypt it using AES-CBC.

  • raw (bytes) – The data to be encrypted.
  • iv (bytes) – AES-CBC initialization vector, 16 bytes long. If left empty, a random 16-byte array will be used.

The encrypted data.


TypeError – The data are not in binary format.

aes_decrypt(encrypted: bytes) → bytes[source]

Decrypt encrypted data using AES-CBC.

Parameters:encrypted (bytes) – The encrypted data to decrypt. It must start with b”$aes-cbc$” prefix, followed by one-block-long initialization vector.
Returns:The decrypted data.


Here is a list of methods of the abstract Upsertor class which can be used for all types of storages.

In-memory storage

Here is a list of methods that are specific for the in-memory storage.

MongoDB Storage

Here is a list of methods that are specific for the MongoDB storage.

ElasticSearch Storage

Here is a list of methods that are specific for the ElasticSearch storage.